Rotation of the Earth

The Earth spins on an imaginary line called the _ _ _ _. This line always points to the same places in space and are sometimes called the North and South Poles. This line is on an angle of _ _ O, which means the Earth is tilted. One rotation takes _ _ hours or one Earth day. As the Earth spins, Australia moves from west to east. Which is why the sun appears to rise in the _ _ _ _ and set in the _ _ _ _.


This video shows how the Earth rotates, creating day and night

Save the Day and Night PowerPoint in your Science folder and complete the questions.

The Seasons

The Earth _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ around the Sun, this is called its orbit. It takes one _ _ _ _ for the Earth to orbit around the Sun, in this time the Earth rotates _ _ _ and a quarter times. Since there is no such thing as a quarter day, an extra day is added to the calendar every four years (as known as a Leap Year).


This animation shows how the Earth's tilt creates the seasons, just keep in mind its American, so the seasons are at the opposite times of year to Australia.

After watching the video copy and complete this cloze exercise in your notes.
Re-watch the video if you have to.

Equinox is when day and night have the same length.
This happens twice a year, once in autumn and once in spring.
  • The Autumnal equinox is _ _ _ March in Australia.
  • The Spring equinox is on the _ _ _ September in Australia.
  • On these days, Earth's spin axis is neither pointing _ _ _ _ _ _ _ or _ _ _ _ from the sun.
  • The longest day of the year in Australia is the _ _ of December.
  • The shortest day of the year in Australia is the _ _ of June.

Save The Seasons PowerPoint in your Science folder and complete the questions

Phases of the Moon

The moon is a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of the Earth, meaning it attracted to the Earth by a gravitational force. It takes _ _ and a third days for the moon to orbit the Earth. The moon itself spins on its axis in the same time, as a result we never see the 'dark side' of the moon from Earth. The moon is lit by the sun.


This video sums up why the moon appears to change its shape.

After reading about the moon in your text and here write a multiple choice question. Test it on a classmate and then send it to your teacher via email. Your question should have 3 believable answers, but only one correct answer.
Test your knowledge.

Look at these great apps from iTunes!
Moon Globe
Star Walk


Read the section in the book on eclipses then copy the sentence below into your notes. Fill in the missing words.

A _ _ _ _ _ eclipse occurs when the moon blocks the light from the _ _ _ causing a shadow on the Earth, this type of eclipse can only occur in the new moon phase. A more common type of eclipse is the _ _ _ _ _ eclipse, when the moon passes through the shadow of the _ _ _ _ _.

Nasa site about Eclipse Dates - http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse.html

A Lunar Eclipse

A Solar Eclipse

Read p 241-242
  • make a diagram of an lunar eclipse. Under the diagram explain in your own words what is happening.
  • answer the over-to-you questions on p242
  • Check your answers here (), discuss with your partner how you could improve what you have written and then improve your detail.
  • Write a multiple choice quiz question based on your new understanding of eclipses and email this to your teacher.



  • Make a pin hole camera to watch the sun
  • Film how it is done and what you saw
  • Amaze someone with your work
  • Share your film with the class.

Pinjole viewers can be as simple as 2 pieces of cardboard, or as complex as a real camera with film
Here is one way how
More about how it works

The Tides

  1. Read Text p 243. Complete Activity 9 (Tide tracks).
  2. Read Text p 244. Answer Over-to-you Questions 1,2,7.
  3. Complete the “fill the gap” activity below and copy this into your notes.
  4. Tonight you are to explain to your parents how the tides work.
    • Write an explanation.
    • Test it on your partner, then on the teacher.
    • Refine your explanation.
  5. Watch the video clip on tides.
  6. Look at the graphs on tides (below).
  7. Answer the questions below as a class and write these into your notes.

Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the _ _ _ _. Even larger tides are caused when the Earth, _ _ _ and moon align (like during a new moon or a full moon), these are called _ _ _ _ _ _ tides, the largest tides are called king tides. When the sun and the moon are at right angles to the Earth, smaller tides are created, these are known as _ _ _ _ tides.
Water is drawn towards the moon because it is so close to the Earth, this makes the oceans closest to the moon bulge out. The Earth is also drawn towards the moon, pulling it away from the oceans on the opposite side. This creates _ _ _ _ tides in these areas.
Since the water levels rise in these places, it drops in other areas, creating _ _ _ tides.



This clip neatly sums up why there are two high tides per day

Activity - The Tides

Observe the graphs below and answer the questions below each graph.

  • How many high tides are there in a day?
  • How many low tides in a day?
  • What can you say about the heights of the two high tides? About the heights of the two low tides?
  • Can you suggest a reason for the differences?
  • Why are there two high and two low tides a day??


  • Look at the heights of each high tide day by day.
  • Do you see a pattern in the heights of the high tides day by day?
  • Describe in words the pattern you see.
  • Look at the heights of each low tide day by day.
  • Is the pattern the same as for the high tides?



  • Look at the heights of each high tide day by day.
  • Is this the same pattern you saw in the 10-day graph?
  • Find the first day when there is the highest high tide. What day is that?
  • Now find the second day when there is the highest high tide.
  • How many days are there between these two highest high tides?

The Assignment

This unit requires you to complete an assignment.